Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is capital city of Quebec, Canada, and one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and La Citadelle, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city.
Ville de Québec
Old Quebec is a historic neighbourhood of Quebec City. Comprising the Upper Town and Lower Town, the area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The district dates back to 1608. The Upper Town was chosen as the site for Fort Saint Louis. It has remained the city's military and administrative centre because of its strategic position atop the promontory of Cap Diamant. It was occupied mainly by British government officials and Catholic clergy after the British Conquest, while French and English merchants and artisans lived in Lower Town. Old Quebec is serviced by the Gare du Palais train and bus station.
The museum's permanent and temporary exhibitions share knowledge and ideas on ancient civilizations, significant sociocultural movements and with a focus on the heart of Quebec society. The previous buildings of the Banque de Paris and the Maison Estèbe, which were situated on Saint-Pierre street, were integrated in the museum's structure.
It is the primatial church of Canada and the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, the oldest in the Americas north of the Spanish colonies. Located on this site since 1647, the cathedral has twice been destroyed by fire throughout the centuries and rebuilt. In 1843, a reconstruction of the façade was suggested to resemble the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris, resulting in the finest Neo-classic façade in Québec. It was richly decorated with impressive works of art. In 2014, the cathedral celebrated its 350th anniversary.
First opened in 1879, the Old Quebec Funicular is a funicular railway that links the Haute-Ville (Upper Town) to the Basse-Ville (Lower Town). One trip on the line travels 210 feet at a 45 degree angle. It originally used the water ballast system of propulsion and the line was converted to electrical operation in 1907.
Opened in 1893, the Château Frontenac is a grand hotel which is now operated as Fairmont Le Château Frontenac. The hotel is generally recognized as the most photographed hotel in the world, largely for its prominence in the skyline of Quebec City. The hotel was designed as a "château" style hotel and built for the Canadian Pacific Railway company (CPR) during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Petit Champlain is a neighbourhood that is named after Samuel de Champlain, who founded Quebec City in 1608. It is the oldest commercial district in North America. Interesting sites include the Rue du Petit-Champlain mural, which represents the history of the district; and the Breakneck Stairs, Quebec City's oldest stairway that was built in 1635.
Ville de Québec
Located at the center of the Habitation-Samuel-De Champlain heritage site, Place Royale is considered the oldest French settlement in North America. It is on the site where Samuel de Champlain (founder of Quebec City) launched the construction of a fortified post in 1608, the first settlement in Quebec City. It was once an important commercial centre of New France.
The Citadelle of Quebec is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada. Construction begun in 1673 and additional structures were not completed until 1850. The citadel is the oldest military building in Canada, and forms part of the fortifications of Quebec City, which is one of only two cities in North America still surrounded by fortifications.
The Parliament Building (Hôtel du Parlement) is home to the Parliament of Quebec, composed of the Lieutenant-Governor and the National Assembly. The building was built from 1877 to 1886. It features the Second Empire architectural style that was popular for prestigious buildings both in Europe and the United States during the latter 19th century. Its facade presents a pantheon representing significant events and people of the history of Quebec.
The Plains of Abraham (Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September, 1759), part of the French and Indian War, which was itself part of the Seven Years' War. The battle left control of Quebec City to the British, eventually allowing them to take control of Canada the following year. Today the site has become an urban park that hosts various events during the Fête nationale du Québec, the Quebec Winter Carnival, and the Quebec City Summer Festival.
The Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec is a museum gathering approximately 25,000 works essentially produced in Quebec, or by Quebec artists, some of which date from the 18th century. Notably, one of these buildings is the old prison of Quebec City, dating from the 19th century, and the interior is a contemporary witness of incarcerated life in the era.