Luxembourg City is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the country's most populous city. Because of its location and natural geography, Luxembourg has through history been a place of strategic military significance. Today the city is a blend of the old and the new, and it has been consistently ranked among the cities with the highest per capita GDP in the world.
The Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Musée d'art moderne Grand-Duc Jean) is a modern art museum with a focus on contemporary art. The museum was inaugurated in 2006 by Grand Duke Jean. Its permanent collection includes works by well-known artists including Andy Warhol and Bruce Nauman. The building was designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect I. M. Pei.
Fort Thüngen is a historic fortification located in Dräi Eechelen Park. It is colloquially known as Three Acorns, in reference to the acorns that sit atop each of the three towers. Most of the original fortress was demolished after the 1867 Treaty of London. The three towers and the foundations of the rest of the fort were all that remained. During the 1990s, the site was reconstructed in its entirety. The building was reopened in 2012 as Musée Dräi Eechelen.
The Bock (Bockfiels) is a promontory that offered a natural fortification. It was here that Count Siegfried built his Castle of Lucilinburhuc in 963, providing a basis for the development of the town which became Luxembourg. the Bock also includes a system of casemates which originated in the cellars of the medieval castle and consists of a vast underground system of passages and galleries. The first tunnels for the underground defences below the old castle were dug out during the Spanish period in 1644. During the Second World War, they were used as a bomb shelter able to accommodate up to 35,000 people. It is a UNESCO's world heritage site.
Place Guillaume II is a town square located in the heart of Luxembourg's historic Ville Haute quarter. The square was originally the site of a Franciscan monastery. In 1804, the visiting Napoleon presented Place Guillaume II to the city as a gift. The town hall in the square was completed in 1838. Today the square is also used as an open air music venue.
Notre-Dame Cathedral is the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Luxembourg City. It was originally a Jesuit church. Its cornerstone was laid in 1613; however, expansion was not completed until 1931. It is the only cathedral in Luxembourg. It was built in late gothic architecture, but has many Renaissance elements and adornments.
The National Museum of History and Art is a museum dedicated to displaying artworks and artefacts from all epochs of Luxembourg history. The origin of the museum dates back to 1839 when Luxembourg's independence was affirmed under the Treaty of London and native Luxembourgers began to show a greater interest in promoting the history of their country. The area is served by a few bus lines at Pfaffenthal, Um Bock stop.
The Grand Ducal Palace is the official residence of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and where he performs most of his duties as head of state of the Grand Duchy. The building was first the city hall of Luxembourg from 1572 to 1795, the seat of the prefecture of the Département des Forêts in 1795, and then the headquarters of the Luxembourg Government in 1817. From 1817, the palace became the residence of the Governor. Today, foreign heads of state are accommodated at the palace.
Opened in 1903, the Adolphe Bridge is an unofficial national symbol of sorts, representing Luxembourg's independence, and has become one of Luxembourg City's main tourist attractions. The bridge was named after Grand Duke Adolphe, who reigned Luxembourg from 1890 until 1905, and was the first monarch to hold the title not in personal union with another.
The Passerelle, also known as the Luxembourg Viaduct, is a viaduct. It is also known as the Old Bridge, in comparison with the Adolphe Bridge (the New Bridge). The Passerelle was built between 1859 and 1861 to connect the city centre with Luxembourg's new railway station, which was located away from the city centre so as to not detract from the defensive capabilities of the city's fortress.